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Master Glossary

— C —


[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X, Y, Z]

[C3]  [C4]  [C5]  [C6]  [C7]  [caffeine]  [Calcium]  [Canadian Neurotoxicity Information Network]  [Cancer
Information Service
]  [candida albicans]  [Capital University of Integrative Medicine]  [Carbon Based Corp]
[carcinogenic]  [caries]  [Carrot poultice]  [CAT scan]  [cavitation]  [CDS Funds Resources]  [CellMate]
[Cell Salts]  [Center for Food Safety Powerpoint Presentations]  [Central Nervous System]  [cerebral cortex]
[Cerebral spinal fluid]  [cerebrum]  [cervical ganglia]  [cervical lymph nodes]  [CFDA - Developing And
Writing Grant Proposals
]  [Chelidonium Plex]  [Chelorex]  [chemotherapy]  [Chi machine]  [Chief Executive]
[China Homaccord]  [Chiropractic EMG]  [chiropractic static report]  [Chiropractor]  [Chlorella]  [Chloride level
]  [Chlorine]  [Choroid plexus]  [chromium]  [chronic fatigue syndrome]  [Chrysene]  [Cilantro]
[Circulation-Sex Accupuncture Meridian]  [cirrhosis]  [Citrulline]  [Clarus Transphase Scientific, Inc]
[Clinical Kinesiology]  [Coenzyme Compositum]  [colon hydrotherapy ]  [Comfrey]  [Community Foundations
and Regional Funders
]  [Community Foundations of Canada]  [Complete Blood Count]  [conjunctiva]  [contact
]  [CoQ10]  [Coral Calcium]  [Corporate Philanthropy and Foundations]  [Cortisol]  [Coumadin]
[Council on Foundations]  [Coxsackievirus]  [Cranial rhythmic impulse]  [Cranial Sacral Therapy]  [creosote]
[Crinnion, Dr. Walter]  [Crown of Thorns]  [Crystal Energy]  [Cuprum]

C3: the third cervical vertebra. Affects the cheeks, outer ears, face bones, teeth, and trifacial nerve. Misalignment of C3 can result in the following symptoms: neuralgia, neuritis, acne, and/or eczema.



C4: the fourth cervical vertebra.  Affects the nose, lips, mouth, and Eustachian tube.  Misalignment of C4 can result in the following symptoms: hay fever, runny nose, hearing loss, and adenoids.



C5: the fifth cervical vertebra.  Affects the vocal chords, neck glands, and pharynx.  Misalignment of C5 can result in the following symptoms: laryngitis, hoarseness, and throat conditions such as a sore throat and quinsy.



C6: the sixth cervical vertebra.  Affects the neck muscles, shoulders, and tonsils.  Misalignment of C5 can result in the following symptoms: a stiff neck, pain in the upper arm, tonsillitis, a chronic cough, or the croup.



C7: the seventh (and final) cervical vertebra.  Affects the thyroid gland, bursae in the shoulders, and the elbows.  Misalignment of C5 can result in the following symptoms: bursitis, colds, and thyroid conditions.



caffeine: one of the world's most widely used drugs. Some anthropologists believe its use may date back to the Stone Age. Pharmacologically, caffeine is one of a group of stimulants called methylxanthine, or xanthine, that occur naturally in some plants. Beverages made from the nuts, seeds or leaves of these plants are major sources of natural caffeine, such as coffee, made from the Coffea arabica plant; soft drinks, like Coca Cola, made from Kola nuts; and tea made from the leaves of Thea sinensis. Cocoa, used to make chocolate, contains caffeine as well as theobromine, another xanthine. Caffeine is also used as a food additive regulated by the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Food and beverage manufacturers are legally required to list caffeine on their products' label only when caffeine has been added. Caffeine naturally present in other ingredients used in the production process need not be on the label. For example, chocolate contains caffeine, so it may not be listed as an additive in candy bars. People who wish to avoid caffeine need to be aware of such natural, plant sources when making food choices. The FDA also regulates caffeine's use as a stimulant in some over-the-counter and prescription medications. Consumers will commonly see caffeine listed as an active ingredient in some stimulants, cold remedies, and various pain killers.



calcium: multiple randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled studies have reported statistically significant positive results using calcium supplementation to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis for both women and men. Calcium has also demonstrated the ability to provide a supportive effect on cardiovascular health by promoting healthy receptor function and healthy lipid metabolism. Additionally, calcium has been associated with supporting distal colon health.



Canadian Neurotoxicity Information Network: links to resources on neurotoxicity, compiled by the CNIN.



Cancer Information Service: the National Cancer Institute's link to the public, interpreting and explaining research findings in a clear and understandable manner, and providing personalized responses to specific questions about cancer.



candida albicans: a yeast-like fungal organism found in small amounts in the normal human intestinal tract. Normally kept in check by the body's own helpful bacteria, candida can increase in numbers when this balance is disturbed to cause candidiasis of the intestinal tract, or yeast infections of other parts of the body. Candida causes thrush. Also called Monilia albicans.



Capital University of Integrative Medicine (CUIM): conceived in 1995 to provide education to medical and health practitioners wishing to incorporate integrative therapies from multiple disciplines of medicine. Responding to the demands of both practitioners and patients, CUIM embraced a simple but progressive mission to encourage health care professionals to promote health assessment and to advance integrative therapies to improve quality of life, alleviate illness, prevent chronic degenerative diseases, and reduce premature death. The founders of the University held that Americans desire and deserve the opportunity to receive the highest quality of health care with the broadest range of safe and effective care options. In keeping with this belief, CUIM was organized in 1995 to educate and develop health care professionals, including those already in health care practice, to serve the public. The University dedicated itself to bringing insight and encouragement to those interested in exploring various forms health assessment and patient-centered therapeutics. From 1996 to 2006, CUIM served as a licensed graduate professional university and the only resident institution of higher education in the United States with a curriculum of widely diverse integrative health therapies. Following a decade of service, CUIM graduated its final class of students, and closed June, 2006. From its inception, the University consistently promoted the advancement of integrative health and healing through education and research. The noble aims of Capital University of Integrative Medicine continue through its many graduates and faculty.



Carbon Based Corp: the innovator of the CellMate™ Report, which extends standard laboratory test results by using an extensive database of medical research to provide Health Care Practitioners with detailed, comprehensive, and individualized information about their patient's health. Carbon Based Corporation was incorporated in Nevada on June 4, 1994 with operations actually beginning in early 1996. The origin of the Company's business can be traced to the efforts of Mark A. Schauss beginning in 1986 to develop a blood test research reporting system. His dream of creating an easy to understand report availing the practitioner of the latest nutritional research without having to spend countless hours reading and disseminating the latest data was realized 10 years later. For many years, Health Care Practitioners have been utilizing a standard blood test that includes a comprehensive chemistry screen, complete blood count and a differential (types of white blood cells) for many of their patients. Unfortunately, effectively reviewing the results takes more time than they have to spend. The time constraints placed on the health care community today is greater than ever. The Health Care Practitioner needs services that speed up the process of blood, and other, test data review and provide them with more information to deal with increasingly complex patient issues. The Company's CellMate™ Reports were developed to meet that need. The Company does not conduct analysis on actual blood/urine samples, but rather takes the results of blood, amino acid, organic acid, fatty acid and minerals/toxins tests performed by standard laboratories and, by comparing them to an extensive compilation of medical research, generates comprehensive reports that analyze in individualized detail the results of these tests. These reports provide the health care practitioner with highly sophisticated, yet easy to read, individually customized information to help the them to assist patients better evaluate their health and develop treatment and wellness strategies. The Health Care Practitioner is able to provide better service in less time, thereby increasing efficiency and income.



carcinogenic: a material that is known to cause cancer. The phrase “known human carcinogen” means there is sufficient evidence of a cause and effect relationship between exposure to the material and cancer in humans. Such determination requires evidence from epidemiologic (demographic and statistical), clinical, and/or tissue/cell studies involving humans who were exposed to the substance in question. Obviously, it is unethical to deliberately test potential carcinogens on humans, so "proving" something (in the rigorous scientific sense) to be a carcinogen in humans is a difficult, demanding and lengthy task.



caries: the demineralization of a tooth, as caused by bacteria.



Carrot poultice: old writers tell us that a poultice made of carrot roots has been found to mitigate the pain of cancerous ulcers, and that the leaves, applied with honey, cleanse running sores and ulcers.



CAT scan: an imaging technique that takes the idea of conventional X-ray imaging to a new level. Instead of finding the outline of bones and organs, a CAT scan machine forms a full three-dimensional computer model of a patient's insides. Doctors can even examine the body one narrow slice at a time to pinpoint specific areas.



cavitation: also called “ischemic osteonecrosis,” it is bone death due to poor blood supply. It can affect any bone in the body.  It is best known as a hip condition, and yet it is actually more common in the jawbone, though unacknowledged as such by mainstream medicine and dentistry.  A jawbone cavitation is simply a hollow space or pocket in the bone. It is not readily visible to the eye and often causes no local discomfort, though it can be the hidden cause of facial pain syndromes (hence one of its names, NICO – Neuralgia Inducing Cavitational Osteonecrosis).  The chief initiating factor is trauma to the jaw, often brought on by standard dental treatment.



CDS Funds Resources: a list of funding sources for nonprofits.



CellMate: see “Carbon Based Corporation” above.



Cell Salts: a group of homeopathic remedies made from minerals. Biochemistry is a science developed by Dr. Schussler to show how Cell Salts are utilized in the body. Cell Salts are not measured like supplements such as 500 mg or more, but are in minute homeopathic potency. In homeopathic potency, Cell Salts balance the mineral in the body and help the body's utilization of the mineral from concentrations in the blood and minerals from food and supplements.



Center for Food Safety Powerpoint Presentations: a series of presentations by the Center for Food Safety on such subjects as of genetic engineering, world hunger, the benefits of organic food, and US regulations on genetically engineered food.



Central Nervous System (CNS): the nervous system informs the body about itself and the world around it and enables the body to react to this information. To accomplish this, the nervous system actively identifies, integrates and interprets incoming sensory stimuli, and produces electrochemical impulses that are distributed via peripheral nerves to generate responses to the environment and internal conditions. The human nervous system is perhaps the most complex thing we know. This complexity is apparent at all levels of its structure, from the creases and folds of its outward appearance, to the dizzying number of connections made by the multitude of cells at the microscopic level.




cerebral cortex: the layer of the brain often referred to as gray matter. The cortex is gray because nerves in this area lack the insulation that makes most other parts of the brain appear to be white. It covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum and cerebellum. The cerebral cortex consists of folded bulges called gyri that create deep furrows or fissures called sulci. The folds in the brain add to its surface area and therefore increase the amount of gray matter and the quantity of information that can be processed. The cerebral cortex is divided into right and left hemispheres. It encompasses about two-thirds of the brain mass and lies over and around most of the structures of the brain. It is the most highly developed part of the human brain and is responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language. It is also the most recent structure in the history of brain evolution. Most of the actual information processing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is divided into lobes that each have a specific function. For example, there are specific areas involved in vision, hearing, touch, movement, and smell. Other areas are critical for thinking and reasoning. Although many functions, such as touch, are found in both the right and left cerebral hemispheres, some functions are found in only one cerebral hemisphere. For example, in most people, language abilities are found in the left hemisphere.



Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF): acts as a cushion that protects the brain from shocks and supports the venous sinuses. It also plays an important role in the homeostasis and metabolism of the central nervous system.



cerebrum: located in the anterior portion of the forebrain, it is divided into two hemispheres that are connected by the corpus callosum. The functions of the cerebrum are intelligence, personality, the interpretation of sensory impulses, motor function, planning and organization, and touch sensation.



cervical ganglia: an extension of the thoracic paravertebral sympathetic trunk lying inferiorly. They function as part of the circuit to distribute sympathetic fibers to the head and neck.



cervical lymph nodes: the lymph nodes located in the posterior triangle of the neck beneath the deep cervical fascia; they empty into the jugular trunk on the right or left side; the group is subdivided into four smaller chains: anterior jugular lymph nodes, lateral jugular lymph nodes, accessory nerve lymph nodes, and supraclavicular lymph nodes.



CFDA - Developing And Writing Grant Proposals: written by the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, this article outlines how to develop and write a grant proposal.



Chelidonium Plex: indicated for all conditions that associated with liver dysfunction, including fatty degeneration, high cholesterol, and constipation; for heavy metal toxicity and skin disorders; and for all conditions that require detoxification and lymphatic drainage such as from the overindulgence of food and alcohol. Chelidonium Plex acts by detoxifying the body through stimulation of the organs of elimination: liver, kidneys and intestines. Liver function can be impaired by stress, environmental pollutants, narcotic and alcohol abuse, and chemotherapy treatment, leading to hormonal imbalances, headaches and immune suppression. Clinical studies show detoxification to be effective in helping individuals who suffer from allergies, arthritis, headaches, fatigue as well as environmental and chemical sensitivities.



Chelorex: an oral chelation tablet formulated to work synergistically to mobilize toxic heavy metals from within the body and protect the body from heavy metal reabsorption and redistribution.



chemotherapy: the use of chemical substances to treat disease. In its modern-day use, it refers primarily to cytotoxic drugs used to treat cancer.



Chi machine: the Q2 Energy Water System transfers negative hydrogen ions in a bio-organic form to your body, through water. B.E.F.E. (Bio-Electric Field Enhancement) is the basis for the Q2 Water Energy System. It is the latest in home-based systems developed by Q-Tech Laboratories as an aid for relaxation and well-being. The Q2 is based upon a new quantum resonance theory called Q-Mechanics that alters an external source of artificial energy into an energy format that is similar in nature and compatibility to that of a body.The Q2 machine is a small device that is sunk into a water tub to 'excite' the water molecules. When a body is submerged into this water, the water inside the body's cells get excited by being in proximity with the water outside the cell. This feeds the cell with useful energy. A fully energized cell can now heal itself, multiply, and function better. The generation and absorption of this 'bio-charge' has been shown to increase the potential voltage in a body's cell membranes, which enhances the immune system and helps to maintain cellular function, while at the same time, assists in the elimination of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.



Chief Executive, Basic Overview of Role: provides an overview for the reader to gain basic perspective on the typical roles and responsibilities of the chief executive officer and how those responsibilities are typically met.



China Homaccord: a Heel remedy for the temporary relief of exhaustion or fatigue due to stress, overwork or illness.



Chiropractic Electromyography (EMG): involves the use of a small, hand-held pickup which is applied to the skin overlying the paravertebral muscles. The electrical signal produced by the paravertebral muscles is amplified, filtered, fed to a display, and recorded. A printed report can be generated by computer. The technique is completely non-invasive. There is no exposure to ionizing radiation, and no electricity is introduced into the body. The equipment simply records the electrical activity which is always there.



Chiropractic Static Report: static paraspinal scanning is a quick (3-12 minutes depending on protocol) approach to getting an idea of muscle activity levels from face to neck to low back. EMI scan takes the electrical activity, converts it to numbers and dramatic color graphic information you can easiliy print out. Static scanning is fast, but it only tells about the state of muscles at rest, in a seated or standing posture. Dynamic/kinesiological EMG collects EMG signal data during movement.



Chiropractor: a health care professional that focuses on disorders of the musculoskeletal system and the nervous system, and the effects of these disorders on general health.  Chiropractic care is used most often to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints, including but not limited to back pain, neck pain, pain in the joints of the arms or legs, and headaches. Chiropractors practice a drug-free, hands-on approach to health care that includes patient examination, diagnosis and treatment. Chiropractors have broad diagnostic skills and are also trained to recommend therapeutic and rehabilitative exercises, as well as to provide nutritional, dietary and lifestyle counseling. The most common therapeutic procedure performed by doctors of chiropractic is known as “spinal manipulation,” also called “chiropractic adjustment.”   The purpose of manipulation is to restore joint mobility by manually applying a controlled force into joints that have become hypomobile – or restricted in their movement – as a result of a tissue injury. Tissue injury can be caused by a single traumatic event, such as improper lifting of a heavy object, or through repetitive stresses, such as sitting in an awkward position with poor spinal posture for an extended period of time. In either case, injured tissues undergo physical and chemical changes that can cause inflammation, pain, and diminished function for the sufferer. Manipulation, or adjustment of the affected joint and tissues, restores mobility, thereby alleviating pain and muscle tightness, and allowing tissues to heal.



Chlorella: a single-celled freshwater algae. These algae contain large amounts of chlorophyll, the chemical that gives plants their green color. Chlorophyll is an essential compound for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light into chemical energy. Chlorophyll is also available in green leafy vegetables. Chlorella is promoted for a wide range of herbal remedy uses. Proponents claim it kills several types of cancers, fights bacterial and viral infections, enhances the immune system, increases the growth of "friendly" germs in the digestive tract, lowers blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and promotes healing of intestinal ulcers, diverticulosis, and Crohn’s disease. It is said to cleanse the blood, digestive system, and the liver.



Chloride level test: a test that measures the amount of chloride in your blood. Chloride is a chemical your body needs for metabolism (the process of turning the food you eat into energy). It also helps keep your body's acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in your blood is carefully controlled by your kidneys.



Chlorine: a naturally-occurring chemical element, chlorine is one of the basic building blocks of matter. Scattered throughout the rocks of Earth’s continents and concentrated in its salty oceans, chlorine is an essential nutrient for plants and animals. Without sodium chloride (salt), there would be no life. Life began in the ocean, a largest repository of salt which is derived from the weathering of the continents. Sodium chloride literally keeps our bodies from drying up, moves our muscles, makes our meals matter, and attacks germs to keep us healthy. Our body's cells exist in a sea of fluid. This extracellular body fluid is mostly water, along with the charged atoms (ions) of sodium and chloride. Chloride plays an essential role in a delicate balancing act: providing for the electrical neutrality and the correct pressure of body fluids, and keeping the acid-base balance of the body. One result of this balancing act is that the amount of water we retain and concentrations of salt in our bodies remain relatively constant over time. We don't dry up nor do we bloat uncontrollably. When changes occur, the balance reasserts itself. For example, after heavy exercise and perspiration the body requires salt; and we are usually thirsty after eating salty food.



Choroid plexus: produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which is found within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord.



chromium: a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. Chromium is present in the environment in several different forms. The most common forms are chromium(0), chromium(III), and chromium(VI). No taste or odor is associated with chromium compounds. Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient that helps the body use sugar, protein, and fat. Breathing high levels of chromium(VI) can cause irritation to the nose, such as runny nose, nosebleeds, and ulcers and holes in the nasal septum. Ingesting large amounts of chromium(VI) can cause stomach upsets and ulcers, convulsions, kidney and liver damage, and even death. Skin contact with certain chromium(VI) compounds can cause skin ulcers. Some people are extremely sensitive to chromium(VI) or chromium(III). Allergic reactions consisting of severe redness and swelling of the skin have been noted.



chronic fatigue syndrome: a disorder that causes extreme fatigue. This fatigue is not the kind of tired feeling that goes away after you rest. Instead, it lasts a long time and limits your ability to do ordinary daily activities. Symptoms of CFS include fatigue for 6 months or more and experiencing other problems such as muscle pain, memory problems, headaches, pain in multiple joints, sleep problems, sore throat and tender lymph nodes. Since other illnesses can cause similar symptoms, CFS is hard to diagnose.



Chrysene: a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). It is a natural constituent of coal tar, from which it was first isolated and characterized. It is also found in creosote, a chemical used to preserve wood. Chrysene is formed in small amounts during the burning or distillation of coal, crude oil, and plant material.  It is suspected to be a human carcinogen, and is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals



Cilantro: a common Mexican and Middle Eastern spice. Fresh cilantro removes heavy metals from the body in less than two weeks.



Circulation-Sex Accupuncture Meridian: the Pericardium Meridian (commonly referred to as the "circulation-sex" meridian) starts from the chest, leaves the pericardium organ and runs downwards through the diaphragm to connect with the triple burner. A branch rising from the chest emerges from the lower chest region and travels upwards to the axilla (armpit). From the medial aspect of the upper arm, it makes its way down between the lung and heart channels, until it reaches the elbow crease. It then runs down the forearm and enters the palm ending at the tip of the middle finger. Another short branch splits off from the palm to connect with the Triple Burner Meridian at the end of the ring finger. Disharmony of the Pericardium Meridian is related to the imbalance of the TCM heart and blood functions. The manifestation includes heart pain (precordial pain), chest discomfort, palpitations and an oppressed feeling in the chest. Since the Heart stores the "shen" or mental activities, Pericardium Meridian disorders are related to mania. In addition, swelling of the axilla and spasms of the elbow and arm can indicate a problem in this meridian, since it passes through these areas



cirrhosis: characterized anatomically by widespread nodules in the liver combined with fibrosis. The fibrosis and nodule formation causes distortion of the normal liver architecture which interferes with blood flow through the liver. Cirrhosis can also lead to an inability of the liver to perform its biochemical functions. To understand the pathophysiology of cirrhosis, the normal anatomy and physiology of the liver must first be briefly reviewed.



Citrulline: a non-standard amino acid that is not normally present in protein. Citrulline is created in the body as an intermediate in the conversion of the amino acid ornithine to arginine in a metabolic pathway called the urea cycle. Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon. The term citrulline was coined in 1930 from citrullus, the Latin name of the watermelon.



Clarus Transphase Scientific, Inc: an innovative technology company devoted to improving and optimizing products, raw materials and living systems that support and sustain life through its fundamental scientific breakthroughs in the field of energy resonance. Sympathetic Resonance Technology™ or SRT™ is Clarus' first proprietary discovery which clarifies the fundamental information pathways between physical matter, linking to its conjunct non-hertzian field. SRT™ amplifies and increases the efficiency of electronic, chemical, and organic systems.



Clinical Kinesiology: a science dedicated to helping the doctor accurately diagnose the conditions of the body and the factors that may be missing or interfering with the optimum healing process. If the doctor intercedes at the right time, the healing process can be successfully guided and enhanced.  Clinical Kinesiology is a breakthrough in the understanding of human function in health and disease.  It Allows the body to express its needs, it gives the doctor an organize system of investigation for diagnosis and logical system of therapeutics, and it points out the need for the patient to take responsibility and gives the doctor a method of evaluating progress. A radical departure from invasive procedure. Alan G. Beardall, DC. developed the most extensive amount of research known today on muscles of the human body. Not only does his work contain detailed information on the proper function of each muscle but it also contains the most specific method of testing each division of each muscle. Dr. Beardall was a pioneer of biological research in the human body. Clinical Kinesiology looks upon the body as a living biological computer. The body has numerous complicated functions and enormous variety of data banks. Electronic computers come equipped with instructional manuals however the manual of the body is in the process of being translated. There are no easy solution to health problems. The clinical kinesiologist observes the blueprint of the body and, with advanced chiropractic procedures, searches for the underlying cause to the symptoms the body displays.



Coenzyme Compositum: a Heel remedy that treats malaise and exhuastion, stress & fatigue, and slow metabolism



colon hydrotherapy: involves gently filling the colon with warm filtered water through a small sterile tube, called a speculum. When the water is flushed out, it carries with it any material that has built up in the intestine including water, waste matter, toxins and trapped gases.



Comfrey: one of nature's greatest medicinal herbs. Used for arthritis, it soothes and heals inflamed tissues, and it helps reduce swelling and pain in a most remarkable way. Comfrey is also used as an herbal remedy for bruises, dislocations and sprains. Comfrey and comfrey root has been used from very ancient times, and is one of nature's greatest healers. It is a great cell proliferant, or new cell grower; can help your body to grow new flesh and bone. It is used for arthritis pain, bruises, dislocations and sprains. Comfrey soothes and heals the inflamed tissues in a most remarkable way. Comfrey is also anti-inflammatory and used for bruises, dislocations and sprains. Both comfrey herb and comfrey root are used to reduce swelling, stop bleeding and to reduce pain.



Community Foundations and Regional Funders: an exhaustive list, organized by state.



Community Foundations of Canada (CFC): the membership organization for Canada's vibrant and growing network of 158 community foundations. CFC offers professional development and training opportunities to its members, provides communication links and acts as an information clearinghouse, facilitates partnerships and initiatives with national and regional funders, reflects member views and concerns on philanthropic issues, and promotes sound public policy. CFC is active in global networks that promote philanthropy and a healthy civil society.



Complete Blood Count (CBC): also called a "full blood count" (FBC), "full blood exam" (FBE), a "hemogram," or a "blood panel."  It is a test that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. The cells that circulate in the bloodstream are generally divided into three types: white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes). Abnormally high or low counts may indicate the presence of many forms of disease, and hence blood counts are amongst the most commonly performed blood tests in medicine.



conjunctiva: the thin, transparent tissue that covers the outer surface of the eye.  It begins at the outer edge of the cornea, covering the visible part of the sclera, and lining the inside of the eyelids.  It is nourished by tiny blood vessels that are nearly invisible to the naked eye. The conjunctiva also secretes oils and mucous that moisten and lubricate the eye.



contact dermatitis: dermatitis is an inflammation of the upper layers of the skin causing rash, blisters, scabbing, redness and swelling. Contact dermatitis is a reaction, which occurs when skin comes in contact with certain substances. Two mechanisms exist by which substances can cause skin inflammation - Irriatation (Irritant contact dermatitis) or Allergic reaction (Allergic contact dermatitis). Common irritants include soap, detergents, acids, alkalis and organic solvents (as are present in nail varnish remover). Contact dermatitis is most often seen around the hands or areas that touched or were exposed to the irritant/ allergen . Contact dermatitis of the feet also exists but differs in that it is due to the warm, moist conditions in the shoes and socks. An allergic reaction does not generally occur the first time one is exposed to a particular substance but on subsequent exposures , which can cause dermatitis in 4 to 24 hours. Treatment includes removal or avoidance of the substance causing the irritation, cleansing the area with water and mild soap (to avoid infection). A recent recommendation for mild cases is to use a manganese sulfate solution to reduce the itching. Antihistamines are generally not very helpful. The most common treatment for severe contact dermatitis is with corticosteroid tablets, ointments or creams, which diminish the immune attack and resulting inflammation.



CoQ10: also called Coenzyme Q10, Co Q10, Ubiquinone, and Vitamin Q. It is a naturally-occuring compound found in every cell in the body. Co q10's alternate name, ubiquinone, comes from the word ubiquitous, which means "found everywhere." Co q10 plays a key role in producing energy in the mitochondria, the part of a cell responsible for the production of energy in the form of ATP.



Coral Calcium: a salt of calcium derived from fossilized coral reefs. Because living coral reefs are endangered and cannot be harvested without severe damage to the ecosystem, coral calcium is harvested by grinding up above-ground limestone deposits that were once part of a coral reef. Coral calcium itself is composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with small amounts of magnesium and other trace minerals. Chemically, calcium carbonate from coral sources is no different than from other sources of calcium, despite the claims otherwise by some companies. However, the addition of trace minerals, which may be dietary deficient in a person, could explain why some claim benefits of coral calcium over more refined sources of calcium supplements. The benefit of Coral Calcium isn't entirely clear. While there are numerous stories from people who have experienced significant health benefits from taking coral calcium, it has not been proven, or disproven, that this was due to the calcium, the other trace minerals or some other dietary deficiency which was improved through the intake of the coral calcium or some other supplement being taken as well. Because of this, the claims of Coral Calcium benefits should be viewed objectively and hype of both proponents and opponents should be factored as extreme opinions while searching for a middle ground and objective context of your own due diligence.



Corporate Philanthropy and Foundations: a list of programs by fundsnet.



Cortisol: an important hormone in the body that is secreted by the adrenal glands. It is involved in the following functions and more: proper glucose metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, insulin release for blood sugar maintenance, immune function, inflammatory response. Normally, it’s present in the body at higher levels in the morning, and at its lowest at night. Although stress isn’t the only reason that cortisol is secreted into the bloodstream, it has been termed “the stress hormone” because it’s also secreted in higher levels during the body’s ‘fight or flight’ response to stress, and is responsible for several stress-related changes in the body.



Coumadin: a brand name of the generic "warfarin," an an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. It is used for the prophylaxis of thrombosis and embolism in many disorders. Its activity has to be monitored by frequent blood testing for the international normalized ratio (INR). Warfarin is a synthetic derivative of coumarin, a chemical found naturally in many plants, notably woodruff (Galium odoratum, Rubiaceae), and at lower levels in licorice, lavender and various other species. Warfarin was originally developed as a rat poison, but it is no longer used for that purpose as modern poisons are much more potent and toxic (e.g. brodifacoum). However, warfarin and contemporary rodenticides belong to the same class of drugs (coumarins) and both decrease blood coagulation by interfering with vitamin K metabolism.



Council on Foundations: a membership organization of more than 2,000 grantmaking foundations and giving programs worldwide. They provide leadership expertise, legal information and networking opportunities - among other services - to their members and to the general public.



Coxsackievirus: part of the enterovirus family of viruses (which also includes polioviruses and hepatitis A virus) that live in the human digestive tract. They can spread from person to person, usually on unwashed hands and surfaces contaminated by feces, where they can live for several days. In cooler climates, outbreaks of coxsackievirus infections most often occur in the summer and fall, though they cause infections year-round in tropical parts of the world. In most cases, coxsackieviruses cause mild flu-like symptoms and go away without treatment. But in some cases, they can lead to more serious infections.



Cranial rhythmic impulse: a palpable, rhythmic fluctuation believed to be synchronous with the primary respiratory mechanism. It is commonly assumed that this rhythmic motion is mechanically driven by variations in the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid system and that it can be felt synchronously all over the body.



Cranial Sacral Therapy: a technique based on Cranial Osteopathy. Like Cranial Osteopathy, Cranial Sacral Therapy seeks to restore the natural rhythmic movement found between the bones of the skull. It does the same for the movements of the sacrum. The purpose of this is to aid the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid throughout the central nervous system. However, Cranial Sacral Therapists believe that the natural movements at the skull bones come from the membrane that lines our nervous system structures, namely the brain and spinal cord. For this reason, their focus is on those membranes, rather than directly on the bones and sutures. Unlike Cranial Osteopathy, Cranial Sacral Therapy is not taught in Osteopathic Colleges. This technique is often given by massage therapists and bodyworkers, who have engaged in further study and skill development.



creosote: the name used for a variety of products: wood creosote, coal tar creosote, coal tar, coal tar pitch, and coal tar pitch volatiles. These products are mixtures of many chemicals created by high-temperature treatment of beech and other woods, coal, or from the resin of the creosote bush. Breathing vapors of the creosotes, coal tar, coal tar pitch, or coal tar pitch volatiles can cause irritation of the respiratory tract. Eating large amounts of creosote (any form) may cause a burning in the mouth and throat and stomach pains. Eating large amounts of herbal remedies containing creosote bush leaves may cause liver damage, while large amounts of coal tar creosote may result in severe skin irritation, eye burns, convulsions, unconsciousness, and even death. Long-term (365 days or longer) exposure to lower levels of coal tar creosote, coal tar, coal tar pitch, or coal tar pitch volatiles by skin or air contact can cause skin damage such as blistering or peeling. Animals fed large amounts of wood creosote had convulsions and died, while those fed lower levels had liver and kidney problems. Animal studies have shown that when pregnant animals breathe creosote, it may cause harmful effects to the baby.



Crinnion, Dr. Walter: naturopath who in 1985 integrated an innovative cleansing facility into his practice where toxic individuals could be comprehensively treated.



Crown of Thorns: a neural therapy technique.  It utilizes the subcutaneous injection of a remedy or substance (most often marcaine or lidocaine) approximately 1 inch apart on the scalp.



Crystal Energy: developed by Dr. Patrick Flanagan, this supplement unlocks the potential of water as the medium for nutrient replenishment and waste removal at the cellular level. In a state of dehydration, body cells cannot assimilate nutrients and remove waste. Dehydration also occurs as a side effect of caffeine. Caffeine effects include anxiety, dizziness, headaches, sleep disorders, and many common ailments. Crystal Energy also helps fight the negative effects of alcohol, stress, and free radicals as part of aging. Humans need to remove toxins to survive. It is the key to long life and anti-aging. However, due to mass food production, mineral deficient soil, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, over-processing of foods, chemical preservatives, and drinking over-chlorinated and over-fluoridated water, people do not detoxify enough daily. Body cells become damaged, hydration levels decrease and cells age. In summary, Crystal Energy challenges the symptoms of dehydration and minimizes the process of aging.



Cuprum: a Heel remedy used for a variety of indications, including diarrhea, muscle spasms, heat stroke, nausea, muscle cramps, paleness (with a blue tint on skin), asthma, whooping cough, epilepsy, and mental exhaustion.