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Master Glossary

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[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X, Y, Z]

[T10]  [T3 Uptake]  [T4 Index]  [Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary]  [tachycardia]  [Taurine]  [T-cells]  [Teeth to Body Chart]  [Temporo Mandibular Dysfunction and Acupuncture Energetics]  [temporomandibular joints]  [terpenes]  [Thalamus Compositum]  [theophylline]  [Thermography]  [Thiurams]  [thoracentesis]  [Thorne]  [Thuja Forte]  [thyroid]  [thyroid medication]  [thyroxine Index]  [TMJ Diseases/Disorders]  [tonsilitis]  [tonsilsTooth Abscess]  [Tooth extraction]  [Tooth/Muscle Chart]  [Total Protein]  [Toxex]  [toxic ambylopia]  [toxic response]  [toxicity]  [Toxicity Profiles]  [TOXNET]  [Trade Secrets]  [Traumeel]  [Triglycerides]  [Triple Warmer Meridian]  [tunica vaginalis]  [Type 2 Diabetes]

T10: located in the mid back it is the 10th vertebrae of the thoracic spine. It effects the kidneys. Symtoms of problems in this vertebrae include: Kidney troubles, hardening of the arteries, chronic tiredness, nephritis, and pyelitis.



T3 Uptake: a test that measures the level of thyroid hormone-binding proteins in the blood. Blood is drawn from a vein on the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and an elastic band is placed around the upper arm to apply pressure and restrict blood flow through the vein. This causes veins below the band to swell with blood. A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. During the procedure, the band is removed to restore circulation. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding. For an infant or young child, the area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a lancet. The blood may be collected in a pipette (small glass tube), on a slide, onto a test strip, or into a small container. Cotton or a bandage may be applied to the puncture site if there is any continued bleeding.



T4 Index: T4 is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. A T4 index test, tests the amount of T4 in the blood which is a way to see how well the thyroid gland is working. The thyroid gland is located at the lower front of the neck. Its main job is to make T4 and release it into the bloodstream. T4 circulates throughout the body, affecting all your organs. T4 regulates metabolism, much the way a thermostat regulates a furnace or air conditioner. The amount of T4 produced and released by the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland, which is located in the brain. The test for T4 is one of several tests that can be done to check the functioning of the thyroid gland.



Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary: a classic, nursing-oriented dictionary for students and practitioners. For more than 65 years, Taber's has provided students, nurses, and health professionals with the definitions and information they need to provide superior care for their patients, while remaining portable and easy-to-carry.



tachycardia: excessively rapid heartbeat.



Taurine: the most abundant free amino acid in the brain, heart, and nervous system, and it plays a role in the healthy functioning of the brain, heart, gallbladder, eyes, and vascular system. It facilitates the passage of sodium, potassium, and, possibly, calcium and magnesium ions into and out of cells, and electrically stabilizes cell membranes. It maintains healthy camp activity, which activates important enzymes in the heart muscle, and contributes to the muscle's contractibility. Taurine is an important component of bile acids, which aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. It aids the body's chemistry by detoxifying harmful chemicals. Dietary taurine promotes the formation of taurocholate, a substance which increases cholesterol secretion in the bile and also supports fat metabolism in the liver.



T-cells: white cells that are processed in the thymus. They contribute to the immune defenses in two major ways.  Regulatory T cells are vital to orchestrating the elaborate system. (B cells, for instance, cannot make antibody against most substances without T cell help). Cytotoxic T cells, on the other hand, directly attack body cells that are infected or malignant. Chief among the regulatory T cells are "helper/inducer" cells. Typically identifiable by the T4 cell marker, helper T cells are essential for activating B cells and other T cells as well as natural killer cells and macrophages. Another subset of T cells acts to turn off or "suppress" these cells. Cytotoxic T cells, which usually carry the T8 marker, are killer cells. In addition to ridding the body of cells that have been infected by viruses or transformed by cancer, they are responsible for the rejection of tissue and organ grafts. (Although suppressor/ cytotoxic T cells are often called T8 cells, in reality the two are not always synonymous. The T8 molecule, like the T4 molecule, determines which MHC molecule-class I or class II-the T cell will recognize, but not how the T cell will behave.) T cells work primarily by secreting substances known as cytokines or, more specifically, lymphokines. Lymphokines (which are also secreted by B cells) and their relatives, the monokines produced by monocytes and macrophages, are diverse and potent chemical messengers. Binding to specific receptors on target cells, lymphokines call into play many other cells and substances, including the elements of the inflammatory response. They encourage cell growth, promote cell activation, direct cellular traffic, destroy target cells, and incite macrophages. A single cytokine may have many functions; conversely, several different cytokines may be able to produce the same effect.



Teeth to Body Chart: a chart that shows the relationship between teeth and other areas of the body. For example Teeth 2 and 3 (which are the 2 of the upper right molars) effect the maxillary sinus, the jaw, the front of the knee, vertebrae T11, T12, L1, Pancrease, stomach, Parathyroid, thyroid, and mammary gland.



Temporo Mandibular Dysfunction and Acupuncture Energetics: a paper written by David S Lerner DDS that looks at the insights gained from an understanding of acupuncture energetics and the application of acupuncture in the treatment of Temporomandibular disorders.



temporomandibular joints (TMJ): the most frequently used joints in the body, allowing us to talk, chew, yawn, swallow and sneeze. The TMJ are located on each side of the cranium. To find your TMJ, place your fingers in front of each ear and open your mouth, you will feel an indentation beneath your finger. The two bones that form the TMJ are the mandible (jaw) located inferiorly, and the temporal bone of the skull (located more superiorly). A disc that is connected to the capsule divides the joint cavity into inferior and superior spaces.



terpenes: any natural product, other than alkaloids, which show medicinal properties or biological activity. Terpenes are widespread in nature, mainly in plants as constituents of essential oils.  Their building block is the hydrocarbon isoprene. Terpene hydrocarbons therefore have molecular formulas (C5H8)n, they are classified according to the number of isoprene units: monoterpenes have 2 isoprene units, sesquiterpenes have 3 isoprene units, diterpenes have 4 isoprene  units, triterpenes have 6 isorene units, tetraterpenes have 8 isoprene units. For example: Menthol, a monoterpene (10 carbons) isolated from various mints, is a topical pain reliever and antipuretic (relieves itching). Plants in the mint family have been used for medicinal purposes since before 2000 BC, but menthol was not isolated until 1771. Thujone, another monoterpene, is the toxic agent found in Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) from which the liqueur, absinthe, is made. Borneol and camphor are two common monoterpenes. Borneol, derived from pine oil, is used as a disinfectant and deodorant. Camphor is used as a counterirritant, anesthetic, expectorant, and antipruritic, among many other uses.



Thalamus Compositum: a Heel remedy for support of the central and peripheral regulatory functions in degenerative diseases and neoplasia.



theophyllinea member of the methylxanthine group of chemicals.  Caffeine was the first of this group to be found helpful to asthmatic humans but had some unpleasant side effects. Other derivatives were quickly produced in hope of minimizing side effects and maximizing the airway relaxant properties that are so helpful in airway disease. Theophylline is able to effect several actions which are helpful in a number of respiratory conditions.  These beneficial effects are: increased contraction strength of the diaphragm, increased beat frequency of the respiratory cilia, dilation and relaxation of constricted airways
, and Central Nervous System stimulation.



Thermography: the use of an infrared imaging and measurement camera to "see" and "measure " thermal energy emitted from an object. Thermal, or infrared energy, is light that is not visible because its wavelength is too long to be detected by the human eye; it's the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we perceive as heat. Unlike visible light, in the infrared world, everything with a temperature above absolute zero emits heat. Even very cold objects, like ice cubes, emit infrared. The higher the object's temperature, the greater the IR radiation emitted. Infrared allows us to see what our eyes cannot. This technology has numerous medical applications; one which is becoming more common is using thermography to screen for breast cancer.



Thiurams: a mix that contains these four substances:  Tetramethylthiuram monosulfide, Disulfiram, Tetramethylthiuram disulfide, and Dipentamethylenethiuram. These substances are used as fungicides and pesticides, and in the manufacture of many rubber products. These substances can cause severe allergies. You are most likely to contact this substance when using, wearing or handling natural or synthetic rubber products at work or at home.



thoracentesisan invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. A cannula, or hollow needle, is carefully introduced into the thorax, generally after administration of local anesthesia. The procedure was first described in 1852.



Thorne: a supplement company that has set the standard for exceptional formulations, quality, and purity in the nutritional supplement industry. Since their humble beginnings in 1984 in a small, rented space in Tukwila, Washington, with just two employees (actually Al and Kelly Czap, the two owners of the company), their philosophy has been the same - provide the purest supplements humanly possible at a reasonable price. In 2007, their manufacturing plant, warehouse, and shipping facility - in Sandpoint and Dover, Idaho since 1990 - covers 76,000 square feet, and they now employ over 120 people. The business has changed dramatically, but the Thorne philosophy has stayed the same - manufacture the finest, purest, highest quality nutritional supplements in the world.



Thuja Forte: a Heel remedy for the temporary relief of proliferative processes present in any condition including warty growths, polyps or cysts.



thyroid: a small gland, normally weighing less than one ounce, located in the front of the neck. It is made up of two halves, called lobes, which lie along the windpipe (trachea) and are joined together by a narrow band of thyroid tissue, known as the isthmus. The thyroid is situated just below your "Adams apple" or larynx. During development (inside the womb) the thyroid gland originates in the back of the tongue, but it normally migrates to the front of the neck before birth. Sometimes it fails to migrate properly and is located high in the neck or even in the back of the tongue (lingual thyroid) This is very rare. At other times it may migrate too far and ends up in the chest (this is also rare). The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine. These cells combine iodine and the amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4. T3 and T4 are then released into the blood stream and are transported throughout the body where they control metabolism (conversion of oxygen and calories to energy). Every cell in the body depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation of their metabolism



thyroid medication: thyroid hormone tablets containing the same chemical compound that the thyroid normally makes. Today, many different thyroid hormone preparations are manufactured. For many years, however, the only thyroid hormone medications available were made from animal thyroid glands. These preparations were very useful, but they contain not only thyroxine (T4), but also a second, more rapidly acting thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine (T3). Most doctors prefer to administer thyroid hormone tablets that do not contain T3 for two reasons. First, the body normally makes T3 from T4; in fact, much of our T4 is changed into T3 under normal circumstances, as it is used by the body. Second, the blood T3 level can become abnormally high after taking medication that contains T3. The abnormally high T3 level can cause a rapid pulse and increase the workload of the heart, which can be dangerous for anyone with underlying heart disease. For these reasons, most physicians now treat hypothyroidism with tablets of pure T4 rather than tablets that contain both T4 and T3.Recently, there has been renewed interest in the question of whether T4 plus a little T3 might be better for some people than T4 alone.



Thyroxine Index: arbitrary value obtained by multiplying the triiodothyronine uptake by the serum thyroxine concentration; it largely corrects for variations in thyroid-bound globulin concentration by providing a clinically valid estimate of the physiologically active free thyroxine; direct assay or laboratory measurement of free serum thyroxine yields a more accurate value.



TMJ Diseases/Disorders: temporomandibular joint diseases and disorders, commonly called TMJ, are a collection of poorly understood conditions characterized by pain in the jaw and surrounding tissues and limitations in jaw movements. Injury and conditions that routinely affect other joints in the body, such as Arthritis, also affect the temporomandibular joint.



tonsilitisan inflammation of the tonsils caused by an infection. In tonsillitis, the tonsils are enlarged, red, and often coated (either partly or entirely) by a substance that is yellow, gray, or white. Tonsillitis usually occurs as part of a pharyngitis (throat infection). Tonsilitis usually begins with sudden sore throat and painful swallowing.  Sometimes, tonsillitis reoccurs, and may cause difficulty breathing. If this occurs, your doctor may recommend taking them out. This procedure of removing tonsils from the throat is called a tonsillectomy.



tonsilsfleshy clusters of tissue that lie in bands on both sides of the back of the throat, above and behind the tongue. The tonsils' major function is to catch incoming germs before the germs cause infections in the throat, mouth, or sinuses. Tonsils contain infection-fighting cells and antibodies that stop the spread of the germs further into the body.



Tooth Abscess: a complication of tooth decay. It may also result from trauma to the tooth, such as when a tooth is broken or chipped. Openings in the tooth enamel allow bacteria to infect the center of the tooth (the pulp). Infection may spread out from the root of the tooth and to the bones supporting the tooth. Infection results in a collection of pus (dead tissue, live and dead bacteria, white blood cells) and swelling of the tissues within the tooth. This causes a painful toothache. If the root of the tooth dies, the toothache may stop, but the infection remains active and continues to spread and destroy tissue.



Tooth extraction: the removal of a tooth from its socket in the bone. If a tooth has been damaged by decay or a fracture, your dentist will try to repair it and restore it with a filling, crown or other treatment. Sometimes, though, the damage is too extensive for the tooth to be repaired. This is the most common reason for extracting a tooth.
OralHealthBasics/CheckupsDentProc/ToothRemovalExtraction/ToothExtr action.cvsp



Tooth/Muscle Chart: a chart from Dental Kinesiologist George A. Eversaul. This chart shows the link between muscles and Teeth. It charts each tooth and its corresponding muscle.



Total Protein: a test that gives a rough measure of all the proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. Specifically it looks at the total amount of two classes of proteins: albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. For example, albumin helps maintain a certain type of blood pressure by preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels.



Toxex: detoxifying drops that are for excretion of all endogenic and exogenic toxins that can lead to development of acute and chronic illnesses. Regular use of TOXEX drops helps eliminate toxins produced by alcohol, allopathic drugs, septic conditions of the blood, foci, metabolic waste products and heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury found in amalgam fillings. In addition, TOXEX drops have antibacterial properties that make this remedy ideal for treatment of acute infections of the organs and mucous membranes, including bronchitis, angina and tonsillitis. It also stimulates the mucous membranes, the lymphatic system and metabolism, and is useful in treating precancerous conditions. This medication also is effective for treating patients with chronic bacterial infections because it aids the excretion of toxins that have been deposited over the years in the connective tissues.



toxic ambylopia: a reduction in visual acuity believed to be due to a toxic reaction in the orbital portion (papillomacular bundle) of the optic nerve. It is caused by multiple toxic and nutritional factors and probably other unknown factors. The symptom is painless vision loss. Diagnosis is by history and visual field examination. Treatment is avoiding suspected toxic agents and improving nutrition.



toxic responsea body’s reaction to chemical or physical (for example, radiation, heat, cold, microwaves) agents that, under certain circumstances of exposure, may cause harmful effects to living organisms. These adverse effects may cause a change in body function or cell structure that might lead to disease or health problems.



toxicity: having within a substance poison to humans. Most toxins that cause problems in humans are released by microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses.



Toxicity Profiles: a list put together by the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) using information taken from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables (HEAST) and other regulatory sources.



TOXNET: a cluster of databases covering toxicology, hazardous chemicals, environmental health and related areas. It is managed by the Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) in the Division of Specialized Information Services (SIS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM).



Trade Secrets: a Bill Moyer report on PBS that reveals how the public's right to know the truth about the thousands of chemicals that surround us have been compromised.  On PBS' website they have documents from a secret archive uncovered during a lawsuit against chemical companies.  They show how these companies sometimes hide the truth about the health implications of their products from the public.  They also show how chemicals pervade daily life. And they explain the right questions to ask and steps to take to protect oneself and family.



Traumeel: a Heel remedy for the temporary relief of muscular pain, inflammation, sports injuries and bruising.



Triglyceridesthe chemical form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body. They are also present in blood plasma and, in association with cholesterol, form the plasma lipids. Triglycerides in plasma are derived from fats eaten in foods or made in the body from other energy sources like carbohydrates. Calories ingested in a meal and not used immediately by tissues are converted to triglycerides and transported to fat cells to be stored. Hormones regulate the release of triglycerides from fat tissue so they meet the body's needs for energy between meals.



Triple Warmer Meridian: responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response. It networks every energy in the body, except heart energy. If it senses you’re in danger, it sucks energy from everywhere except the heart. It’s as if an army gets conscripted and the energies can’t keep their old job. They have to come and fight. We live in a world where that’s generally not what it’s about anymore, but triple warmer thinks it is because it was programmed millions of years ago. The triple warmer response is a very expensive response in terms of your body’s resources. It not only takes a lot of resources, it also puts a lot of chemicals into your body that have to be burned off. If you don’t complete the impulse to fight or flee, they don’t get burned off and they are like poison to your body.



tunica vaginalis or albuginea of the testis: the serous sheath of the testis and epididymis, derived from the peritoneum, and consisting of an outer and inner serous layer.



Type 2 Diabetes: a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use sugar. Sugar is the basic fuel for the cells in the body, and insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart.